Property and Production: Pamphlet Promoting Christian Democracy’s Agrarian Reform

This source is related to the agrarian reform in Chile under the government of President Frei. It is a 1966 government pamphlet created by the Christian Democrats in response to a speech that the president gave to the peasant leaders, and it is separated into three main parts: current problems with the agrarian system in Chile, propositions of the reform and how the agrarian reform would affect current landowners. The context of the agrarian reform was that, historically, the majority of landowners were aristocrats who were more focused on their own social status and political power rather than the agricultural benefits that their land could have for the country. President Frei, and President Alessandri before him, were the two leaders who got the ball rolling with the agrarian reform, but due to lack of results and empty promises, many of the disillusioned peasants who were expecting to become landowners ended up turning their backs on the Christian Democratic government and supporting Salvador Allende.

The pamphlet itself, as mentioned, is split into sections. The first one provides a number of alarming statistics that essentially laid out the fact that there was a lot more land that could be cultivated than was being cultivated. This section and the following one, laying out the proposal for land redistribution and peasant empowerment, clearly demonstrates how the government was trying to position themselves on the side of the peasants so they could win their vote. Curiously enough, the last section does not refer to the peasants, but rather states that a mere 0.02% of the landowners would be affected by the reform, and that those who were abiding by the law and acting as upstanding citizens would remain untouched.

Unanswered questions:

  1. The pamphlet mentions that only about 5,000 of the 250,000 landowners in Chile would be affected by the agrarian reform. How much of a “reform” could this really be if there were 3 million peasants that would be involved in the redistribution of land?
  2. How and why did the land reform function better under Allende’s government than it did under the Christian Democratic government of Frei and even Alessandri before him?

Hallie Lonial

Jill and Selwyn Response to Baab Questions

  1. What are the conflicts that prevented tourism in both countries?
    1. In Cuba, one of the main conflicts that prevented tourism was the  United States’ tourism embargo of Cuba. Further, during his reign, Fidel worked to keep tourists out of Cuba. In Nicaragua, the Somoza regime discouraged tourism. Thus, tourism did not gain momentum until after the sandinista movement and the 1972 earthquake. The 1972 earthquake gave Nicaragua more international attention.
  2. How did the Cubans and Nicaraguans present those conflicts to tourists?
    1. The Cubans presented these conflicts in terms of nostalgia for the past, specifically nostalgia for the Cuba that existed right after the revolution.
    2. Nicaragua at first presented itself as an adventure destination for the adventure-seeking tourist. Nicaragua did this to divert attention from the corruption prevalent in the country to the natural beauty prevalent in the country. After the sandinista movement, Nicaragua focused on its colonial past and nostalgia for colonial cities such as Granada. Nicaragua did this because it did not want tourists to know about negative things that happened in the country.
  3.  What mechanisms did they use to present conflicts to tourists?
    1. In Cuba, these conflicts were presented in the revolution museum and by Che’s ubiquitous face (murals, post-cards, t-shirts).Nicaragua also sold post cards and other goods with Che’s face on  as well as post cards, t-shirts and other goods with the sandinista logo.
  4. How would Baab describe post conflict tourism?
    1. In Cuba, Baab would discuss how tourists easily go from pre-revolution to post- revolution sites without really thinking about the difference and significance between theses two time periods.
    2. For Nicaragua, Baab would discuss how Nicaragua presents itself as an emerging nation full of natural beauty that hides the conflicts of its recent past.

Emily & Daniela: Sex Tourism in Bahia Discussion Report

Report on the Sexualization of the Brazilian Identity

           Race. This single word connotes a plethora of images and meanings. While much progress is taking place around the world in regards to race and its resulting implications, differences between races still exist in a sort of “racial hierarchy”. This “racial hierarchy” is seen throughout the world in different forms. Erica William’s book titled Sex Tourism in Bahia explores one specific usage of this term. Chapter Two, Racial Hierarchies of Desire and the Specter of Sex Tourism, focuses on the “racial hierarchy” of women involved in an active or passive form in sex tourism in Bahia. On one end of the spectrum, are the white woman, which is still often considered the “standard of beauty” in Brazil (Williams, p. 45). On the other end of the spectrum are the African/Black women, who are often considered the “standard of sensuality” (Williams, p. 45). Mulatas fall somewhere in the middle, but are considered the ultimate and “national erotic icon” (Williams, p. 48).  A mulata is believed to embody “the male sexual fantasy of uniting the white woman’s respectability with the black woman’s stereotypical lubricity and powerlessness”, essentially possessing the best of both worlds (Williams, p. 48). Continue reading

World Heritage Sites and Beatriz Aurora (Lauren Arsenault)

In class on Thursday, we did an in class assignment to help us gain an understanding of World Heritage Sites. The site we analyzed was Palenque. We worked in small rotating groups, and answered the questions based on our previous discussions, readings, and internet sources. At the end of class we shared our answers to the questions. We talked about what criteria are necessary for a world heritage site and the relationship between the people and the site. We talked in detail about whether or not the world heritage sites are becoming museum like in quality. That is, we talked about how a historical site can undergo “museumification” because the original intended use is no longer happening, and there is no direct interaction between the site and the visitor. We did not come to a conclusion about whether “museumification” was actually happening or not, but agreed that while not exactly the same as a museum, the sites are no longer serving their original intent.

Additionally, I talked about the source for the day, an image by Beatriz Aurora. Beatriz moved to Mexico in 1979 after being exiled from Chile during Pinochet’s government. She began painting for the Zapatista movement, calling it something that is very important to her, and that she is inspired by. The Zapatistas are named after Emiliano Zapata of the Mexican Revolution. They are a leftist political and militant group from Chiapas, Mexico. The EZLN was formed in 1994 as resistance to the government and its treatment of indigenous people. On January 1, 1994 in response to Nafta there was an uprising in Chiapas. The government responded and there was a cease fire and the region was militarized. This group originally tried to make their points by peaceful means, like protests and sit ins, but that did not garner support. So then they began a military offense, trying to ignite a revolution. This was unsuccessful. Due to their lack of success in the military realm, they EZLN has been trying to promote its cause through the internet, and likely will garner more attention through paintings by artists like Aurora.

Questions:

Do you think that the museumification of the World Heritage Sites is a bad thing? If so, is there any alternative to this use?

Do you think that the strategy that EZLN uses, promoting their cause through the internet and by making their cause popular will work? Is there any alternative based on the current Mexican government?

Through cultural tourism, is there a “museumification” of indigenous people themselves, such as the members of EZLN? Is their culture admired but not respected?

 

 

 

Luke Summary

In class we discussed the idea of cultural and artistic authenticity according to Walter Benjamin, who claimed that original works of art possess a certain aura, or unique existence in time and space, which mechanical reproductions, such as photographs, are unable to capture. Benjamin believed that mechanical reproduction was valuable because it democratized access to rare instances of art; however, he also remained suspicious of the process, which he believed was responsible for removing the most special qualities of a singular work. This discussion of Benjamin is particularly relevant to our Heritage Site projects because of how we are attempting to document, celebrate, and in a sense replicate some of the aspects that make these sites so valuable. Although, as Benjamin asserts, it is impossible for us to demonstrate exactly what is special about these sites, it is still a worthwhile endeavor because we can make information about these places more accessible, and in doing so, encourage people to actually visit the sites and learn more about the cultures. In my presentation, I discussed the leftist revolutionary group known as EZLN, or the Zapatistas, and in much of their official rhetoric released through Subcomandante Marcos, they draw on the same traditions of social Marxism from which Benjamin’s writings originated. Indeed, Benjamin was very concerned with the popular ideological effects of capitalism, and the Zapatistas have identified many of the same problems with the system, namely that wealthy elites use capitalist structures to manipulate and harm vulnerable populations. The Zapatistas fight back against these structures on behalf of long-exploited indigenous peoples by opposing the government and economic globalization in many ways, but especially through mass protests, social media campaigns, and eloquent, persuasive rhetoric.

Comments on Interview with Dr. Erica Williams

 

The interview with Dr. Erica Williams was overall conducted in a passive tone/mood. Considering the topic of the book dealt with sexual matters in Brazil, I expected more action during the discussion. The questions made by my classmates and myself were challenging and provoking. However, the answers delivered by Dr. Williams somehow always avoided any controversy. She showed constant professionalism over the matter, but lacked some spice at the moment of stating an argument to support the questions we made. I found a lot of trouble reading the book because I found some testimonies and arguments a bit out of focus and even rude. Continue reading

“The Motorcycle Diaries” – Emily Wenner

The Motorcycle Diaries is a film depicting the early and formative experiences of Che Guevara. Ernesto Guevara, born in Argentina came to represent the face of revolution in Latin American countries, specifically through the iconic picture of his face looking upwards taken by Alberto Kordo in 1960. Before Guevara’s many revolutionary acts ultimately leading to his death in Bolivia in 1967, he was studying to become a doctor. It was during his (along with friend Alberto Granado, a biochemist) nine-month trip through South America that Guevara gained a new sense of knowledge and purpose. The film, The Motorcycle Diaries, depicts the transformative journey fairly accurately (according to online source) with a strong emphasis on Guevara’s interactions with a poor communist couple in Chile, his interactions with the campesinos living by the Incan Civilization in Peru, and the interactions with people at a leper colony in Peru as well.

Starting off in Argentina with his well-off family, Guevara gradually uncovers the hardships that other people living in South America experience. What has been said to be Che’s most influential experience on his travels was his encounter with a very poor communist couple in Chile. As we have previously discussed in class, Chile was highly reliant on their exports of copper from their mines. The couple that Che meets is desperately looking for work at a copper mine. Through their conversation, the poor couple asks Che and Alberto why they are on the road. Their response; “to travel.” While earlier scenes had depicted Guevara’s deep compassion and honesty, it was at this moment where the demeanor and underlying purpose of Guevara’s travels changed. No longer was it an experimental journey to “put in the books”, but rather it became a highly informative and important journey that ultimately shifted the course of Ernesto “Che” Guevara’s life.

A second defining entity of the trip for Guevara was his interactions with the indigenous people living near Machu Picchu in Peru. One conversation had with a campesino in particular relayed to Guevara how the people had taken up work to successfully cultivate the land of wealthy landowners, only then to be pushed off their own land without work or money. As Che met with various people of this previously Incan community, he realized the true injustice that was happening on the continent he called home to. Additionally, this part of the movie marks the beginning of black and white shots of the indigenous people showcased in the movie. Through these still-like captures, one can see the true weariness marked on these people’s faces.

Lastly, Guevara and Granado visit a leper colony as volunteers. At this colony, Guevara sees firsthand the both literal and metaphorical split of the poor/sick and the better-off doctors/volunteers/nuns. Guevara and Granado physically touch the leper patients without the use of gloves are a symbol of solidarity and unity, differing from the other volunteers and workers at the colony. On the literal side, the sick and the doctors/workers are even split by a river. Guevara’s last night at the colony is also his birthday, and after dancing and partying at a celebration put on for him by his fellow volunteers and workers, Guevara decides to swim across the river to spend the rest of his birthday with the leper patients on the other side of the river, officially representing Che’s conversion to helping the masses as opposed to living the comfortable life that was available for him with his completion of school.

I believe this film is very important in regards to American viewers. I watched this film with my Dad, and his entire perception of Che Guevara, the Marxist influenced rebel, changed within the course of the 2 hour and 9 minute film. By displaying the true nature behind Guevara’s revolutionary actions, one sympathizes and even tries to resonate with the compassionate Che. There is much to be seen and learned through this film.

Post-Conflict Tourism: Cuba and Nicaragua – Emily Wenner

  1. What are the conflicts that prevented tourism?

CUBA: The Cuban Revolution (and the establishment of a leftist state) leading up to the embargo between Cuba and the United States prevented tourism (specifically for citizens of the United States.) Additionally, it was a timer period characterized by violent guerilla warfare.

NICARAGUA: As in Cuba, a violent revolution took place in Nicaragua. The revolution was the result of heated opposition to the Somoza family, who (corruptly) controlled everything in Nicaragua for over 40 years.

 

  1. How did Cubans and Nicaraguans present those conflicts to tourism?

CUBA: Cubans use the Cuban Revolution to their advantage and symbols/sites can be found throughout the island nation, resulting in a large influx of tourists. The most famous and frequently seen example of conflict presentation by Cuba is the mass commercialization of el “Che”.

NICRAGUA: While the country of Nicaragua generally wants to erase their violent recent past in regards to their Revolution in attracting tourists, Nicaragua also recognizes the certain tourist appeal that comes from their tumultuous past. For example, Babb speaks of a Russian woman’s decision to visit Nicaragua lying in “the country’s revolutionary past.”

 

  1. What mechanisms did they use for presenting the conflict as they did?

CUBA: Havana’s Museum of Revolution, a memorial for Jose Martí, and the extensive commercialization of the iconic “Che” face are all examples of concrete mechanisms for presenting the Cuban Revolution.

NICARAGUA: INTUR (the tourism office) has promoted tourism through the rebuilding of infrastructure, even seeking to develop a “comeback package” to bring Nicaraguans who had left during the Sandinista period back.

 

  1. How would Babb define post conflict tourism in chapters 1 and 2?

Post conflict tourism uses a country’s dangerous and tumultuous history as a means of attracting a certain type of tourist. By using generally disadvantageous parts of a country’s history, countries like Cuba and Nicaragua have created a tourist model that rather sees those parts as advantageous.

Between Capitalism and Communism

Between Capitalism and Communism

 

Background on Eduardo Frei

The document states that Eduardo Frei was Chile’s first modern politician, beginning his political career as a university student active in Catholic organizations. Furthermore Frei was a founding member in the 1930s of the Chilean Falange Nacional movement. In essence the Chilean Falange Nacional Movement was an offshoot of the Conservative Party that advocated Catholic participation in social reform and electoral politics. In 1958, Frei became the first presidential candidate appointed by the newly formed Christian Democratic Party. Unfortunately Frei lost the election in 1958, however reran in 1964 and eventually won the office of presidency. In conclusion Frei placed a heavy emphasis on his party’s effort to create a “Third Way”, or an ideological compromise between capitalism and communism.

Between Capitalism and Communism

Frey begins his essay stating, “ Social Christianity must project itself beyond an obsolete capitalism”, in essence Frey recognized the changes taking place within Chilean society and sought to proactively address these concerns. Additionally Frey states, “Communism, which has taken over huge areas, even whole continents, threatens Europe and we are called on to defend Western and Christian civilization”. This statement clearly outlines Frey’s distrust of the Communist Ideology, something that has often been misrepresented in history (Frey often thought of as a communist). Yet although Frey rejects Communism, he questions why Chile ought to provide a defense against communism and for whom the Chilean people should provide the defense for. In some respects a rhetorical question, Frey answers with the doctrine of Social Christianity. Frey concludes that Social Christianity is, “the belief that communism will never be stopped unless social and economic reform takes place, which in itself implies a revolutionary and creative change”. Furthermore Frey believed that a nation governed by the doctrine of social Christianity is a nation held together by faith, hope, and charity. In essence brotherly love, and a nation bound by community.

At this point in the document Frey shifts his criticism Communism to Capitalism. Frey separates Social Christianity from traditional Rightist ideologies, criticizing the right as power hungry and wanting to maintain the west through capitalism, which in his mind was an egotistical pursuit. Frey argues that the “rational skepticism negates faith, and the conservation of privilege kills the hope for the common man. Moreover Frey discusses how capitalism inherently supports the current system of rural land tenure, something Social Christianity would reform in order to give land ownership to the middle and lower classes. Recognizing the economic opportunity that was taking place in Chile Frey states, “ a gigantic process of economic transformation and progressive industrialization. Massive amounts of capital will come from North America. Capital is essential in Chile, however, it is important to question who will control this new power and wealth. Frey concludes his paper emphasizing the importance of a middle ground stating “Capital can come in the form of private or state capitalism, and instead of helping our people to be free and live with greater dignity, can convert them into mere machines”

Questions

  1. How do you think Frey’s political ideology shaped the government of Salvador Allende and eventually the policies of Augusto Pinochet?
  2. Was the Doctrine of Social Christianity plausible or simply an idealistic political measure?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tourism Encounter by Jose A. Ponce and Victor Tapia

What are the conflicts that prevented tourism?

The conflicts that prevented tourism in Cuba and Nicaragua were both due to political unrest. In Cuba the scenario was more drastic than Nicaragua, due to the strong effects that came with the socialist/communist revolution lead by Castro. During the mid 20th century a revolutionary group lead by Fidel Castro and inspired by the figure of liberation of “El Che” the atmosphere in the island was tense and insecure. The involvement of the US government in the conflict made things worst. The fear of allowing a nation so close to the Capitalistic country to fall in the hands of communism forced the US to intervene with force and support the opposition. As a result, the revolution ended up in violent encounters with several casualties. With little success by part of the US, Fidel Came to power after the coup d’État. Once in power he declared himself a communist and acted as a dictator, taking control over most, if not all aspects of society and the economy. The reaction of the US to this happening was to institute an embargo on the island and close all kind of diplomatic and economic relationship. Thus, US citizens were prohibited to visit the island, and as a domino effect the majority of countries around portrayed Cuba as an unsafe destination. Hence, tourism was extremely affected and not popular during the time. By the other side in Nicaragua, the political unrest between the Somoza’s family, who ruled the country, and the Sandino movement made the country a blood field. The US once again feared that the Sandinistas would follow a communist ideal and intervened to support the Somoza’s. Consequently, the unsecure environment made Nicaragua a non-attractive place to visit. Once the last Somoza ruler was killed things became even worst and Nicaragua was practically ignored as a destination for tourists.

How were the conflicts presented to tourists?

The conflict is presented to tourists in the best way possible. It is certain that people are driven and curious to know and experience the occurrences of a nation that has gone through difficult stages. It is as if violence and conflict triggers the interests of tourists to visit a certain territory. The best example mentioned in the book is how Cuba marketed its revolution and heroic liberalism from imperialism with iconic image of “El Che”. The image of the libertarian is a worldwide phenomenon that drives the attention of millions of people to visit Cuba and get first hand experience. Even though conflict and war could be a great marketing tool, it is also a double sided threat because conflict scares tourism and political tension deviates the attention of the public. Therefore, Cuba had to overcome the stereotypes that the US imposed on communism to attract tourism to the island. In Nicaragua however, the metaphor that the author uses to explain how the conflict was exposed to tourists is that “the image of Nicaragua is like a lady that has not washed off her old makeup to put on her new makeup”. I understand this quote to explain the fact that Nicaragua had many post conflict wounds that have not been solved or cured. By one side it makes it attractive because it is a place that shows a crude reality, but on the other side it is not a great thing for the country itself because it shows a poor development.  

 

What mechanisms did Babb use to present tourism?

Along the reading, Babb describes and explains the historical events chronologically. Then, she mentions the principal characteristics of tourism in both places and the importance of it. Finally, she gives her own perspective about the industry itself. Past conflicts function for the tourism industry as a unique element because it makes it a special or exotic place. She mentions in both cases that  intellectuals and writers visited these places as a new experience that no other places offered.

How did Babb define those post conflict tourism?

Post-conflict tourism is defined as the tourist’s mixed experience among the past and the present. Babb associates the past with a harsh period of time and social and political struggle that helped the countries transformed in to what they are now. Being the political revolutions the most interesting aspect, tourists experience today that post- conflict tourism.